Diarrhea is the number of increased defecation, average of 3 times daily, loose stool or water stool; sometimes it mixes some of unusual nature such as undigested food, mucus and blood. If diarrhea and vomiting occur at the same time, this can cause of dangerous dehydration and lead to cardiovascular collapse, exhaustion and death if they do not treat promptly. Epidemic diseases affect serious health and life of people, and local social-economy development.
2. What is kind of diarrhea?
Pursuant to the disease reasons, diarrhea could be divided into two categories: infectious and non-infectious. The infectious diarrhea also known as an enteritis that causing of large intestine bacillus, virus-enteritis, mushroom-enteritis. Intestinal infection such as respiratory infection, pneumonia, skin infection and other infectious diseases are always accompanied with diarrhea. Non-infectious diarrea knows as poor digestion or alone diarrhea; it usually occurs when weather change suddenly.
Pursuant to disease status, diarrhea can divide into mild, medium and severe form. For the mild diarrhea, go to stool is less than 10 times daily, quantity of feces is less than 10ml/kg compared with body weight and, do not occur dehydration, toxication. For the medium diarrhea, going to stool is from 10 to 20 times every day and quantity of feces is over 20ml/kg compared with body weight, and heavy dehydration and clear toxication. For severe diarrhea, going to stool is over 20 times daily.
3. When do you go and see doctor?
Although diarrhea is usually not serious and patients have recovered their strength by themselves, in the serious cases, the patients need to go and see doctor. And the following cases need to go and receive advice from doctor:
Diarrhea more than 3 days.
Have a abdominal pain or intestinal pain.
Temperature is over 380c.
Stool with blood or color feces
There are many causes of diarrhea. Most of cause of acute diarrhea is bacterial infection, infection, parasites, medication and enteral disorder. According to medicine statistics, there are about 30% ~ 40% of cases of diarrhea is cause of bacterial infection, 20% ~ 30% is cause of infection (about 30% of cases of e. Coli o157 is cause of blood diarrhea). In addition, contaminated water, poor hygiene is also cause of diarrhea.
4.1 virus agent
The common cause of acute diarrhea is bacterial infection. This knows as a viral gastroenteritis or stomach flu.
There are many viruses that cause of acute diarrhea, in general:
Rotavirus (cause of diarrhea for children )
We will analyze more clearly about above virus next context
4.2 microbes agent
Some of microbe (also known as “bacterial”) could be a cause of diarrhea:
Staphylococcus aureus (s. Aureus) – always infected meat with technological processing and milk-cakes.
Clostridium perfringens – always infect heated food.
Bacillus cereus – usually transmit disease by rice and beans, including sprouts.
Salmonella – usually infection of chicken eggs, duck eggs and poultry. Typhoid fever is usually causing of infection salmonella typhi.
Shigella – the microbe or bacterium is the cause of diarrhea that they usually detect in the child house and rural villages.
Escherichia coli (e. Coli) – infected undercook meat; however, escherichia coli diarrhea related to sprouts, the juice have not been sterilized by method of pasteur, the fermented pork roll, cabbage and cheese.
Campylobacter jejuni – usually infected bird, chicken and duck. The bacterium usually detect at household that breed poultries.
Yersinia enterocolitica – a microbe or bacterium infected yersin (yersiniosis). The infection usually happened when eating infected meat and milk.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus – a infected microbe cause of eating raw seafood, especially oyster.
Vibrio cholerae – microbe or bacterium cause of cholera; they usually detect developing countries, and result of contaminated water.
Parasites could penetrate into our body through food or water and live on digestive system. The parasites can cause of dierrhea, including:
Giardia lamblia – the parasites usually cause from water pollution, giardia is common cause of diarrhea for homosexuality.
Entamoeba histolytica – the parasites propagate through water or food infecting feces, but it can also be caused by directly contact through dirty hands and sex.
Cryptosporidium – can propagate through food. The risk in children is higher than in adults. The mixed vegetable (salad) that planted with fertilizer is also a cause of transmission of the parasite. Because the parasites can either live in water or transmission source.
There is a lot of diarrhea medication, some of common medication is:
Antacids contain magnesium.
Some of other chemicals can also be cause of diarrhea:
Non-sugar chewing gum and peppermint can also be cause of diarrhea.
Sadness, anxiety, blood infection (sepsis), infectious diseases related to sex, otitis, etc… can also be a cause of diarrhea.
 soffer ee. Diarrhea. In: andreoli te, et al, eds. Cecil essentials of medicine. 5th ed. Philadelphia, wb saunders, 2001:316-320.